updated: Jan 23, 2013, 12:00 PM
By Julia J. Di Sieno
On Sunday night our rescue hotline received another call for help. A jogger
found this female bobcat shaking under an oak tree in Santa Ynez. While on scene
our team witnessed many squirrel bait traps littered on nearly each land parcel.
Despite our heroic efforts, treating our suffering bobcat she died early this
This is our third bobcat, as well as many hawks that died from the same general
area in Santa Ynez. Our findings have been reported to proper authorities.
PLEASE educate your neighbors and friends!
JUST BECAUSE WE DON'T WITNESS IT...
DOESN'T MEAN IT ISN'T HAPPENING
Ialon, Havoc, D-Con mice and rat traps
Mechanism of Action: second-generation anticoagulant. Absorbed
through the gut and inhibits the vitamin K-dependent steps in the synthesis
of multiple clotting factors. Death usually occurs through gastric hemorrhage.
Metabolism: brodifacoum is retained in the tissues at high rates,
sometimes remaining in organ systems during the entire lifetime of an
exposed animal. In a study that measured the retention of radioactive
brodifacoum in the livers of single-dosed rats, 34% of the single dose is
found in the liver after 13 weeks, and 11% of the dose remained in the liver
for 104 weeks, approaching the normal lifespan of a rat (U.S. EPA MRID
Very highly toxic to mammals and birds.
Brodifacoum is extremely dangerous to birds through secondary exposure,
especially raptors feeding on poisoned rats and mice.
Hundreds of avian and other wildlife mortalities have been
reported across North America.
Brodifacoum is absorbed through the gut and works by preventing the
normal clotting of blood, leading to fatal hemorrhage. It is highly effective
at small doses - usually a rodent ingests a fatal dose after a single feeding
and will die within 4-5 days. The greatest risk to wildlife from brodifacoum
is secondary poisoning. Rodents continue to eat poisoned bait so at the
time of death the amount of brodifacoum present in their bodies is many
times the amount required to kill them. Non-target wildlife such as predators
and scavengers may then consume rodents that have ingested large
doses of brodifacoum. It can take as little as one poisoned rodent, or a
predator may accumulate enough brodifacoum after consuming several
poisoned prey items, to induce life-threatening or fatal effects. A single
dose of brodifacoum can depress blood clotting for months
in some animals, including birds. Stress or slight wounds incurred
in the fi eld, such as small scratches that normally occur when a raptorial
bird captures its prey, are often suffi cient to cause a fatal hemorrhage.
Raptor species maintain hunting territories that may include areas near
agricultural or other industrial and urban buildings where rodent control is
ongoing. Local avian predators may consume rodents living in and around
these structures. However, the death of such a predator will most likely
occur some distance away from treated sites, making it diffi cult to observe
patterns of mortality attributable to any one cause. Furthermore, birds that
have been exposed to lethal levels of brodifacoum may be more likely to
die from other causes such as accidents or predation. Most mortality undoubtedly
goes undiscovered. For these reasons, the true impact on birds of many
including brodifacoum is obscured.
More on Pesticides:
1) Widely used pesticides are not particularly specific for the "target"
pesticides can cause unintended and unwanted effects
to "non-target" resources. Species can be exposed to pesticides by many
routes, with the simplest form being direct contact or ingestion.
2) Animals can ingest pesticides indirectly through contaminated foods such as
leafy material, seeds, and prey (including insects and other animals), or by
through precipitation and irrigation (puddles, drinking water, bathing water or
3) Aquatic organisms can be exposed to pesticides entering water bodies through
and groundwater infi ltration. Measurable amounts of pesticides have been
4) Indirect effects of pesticides can also have signifi cant implications to
For example, herbicide drift can harm plants and consequently damage the habitat
which an animal species depends. A given pesticide can be relatively non-toxic
animal species, but may be lethal to its prey or food plants. Similarly, an
indirectly harm an endangered plant that may depend upon a specifi c insect
5) Wildlife, for example, are more susceptible to pesticide effects during
of young or during times of low food availability.
6) Primary exposure includes eating, drinking, preening of feathers, skin
or breathing of vapors.
7) Secondary exposure occurs from scavenging on contaminated
food, such as exposed carcasses, or feeding upon insects. If pesticide
levels are high enough, wildlife often die suddenly.
8) Not as readily observed in wildlife are the sublethal, or
non-fatal, consequences of ingesting pesticides. Behavior
changes, weight loss, impaired or unsuccessful reproduction, high offspring
or deformed embryos are results of sublethal exposure to pesticides. Affected
become easy prey for predators, while many lose their ability to adapt to
9) Pesticides can reduce insects that may be important
food sources for young birds and fi sh, and habitat is similarly reduced
when vegetation is destroyed -- a critical factor for small wildlife populations
stressed by insufficient habitat.
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